What is a database? Definition, concept, types with example (2023)

Before knowing about a database, let us understand –

What is data?

In short, data can be facts related to any object under consideration. For example, your name, age, height, weight, etc. are some data related to you. An image, picture, file, pdf, etc. can also be taken for granted.

What is a database?

A database is a systematic collection of data. They support electronic data storage and manipulation. Databases facilitate data management.

Let's discuss a database example: An online phone book uses a database to store people's data, phone numbers, and other contact information. The electricity service provider uses a database to manage billing, customer-related issues, handle error data, etc.

Let's also consider Facebook. It must store, manipulate and present data related to members, their friends, member activities, messages, advertisements and more. We can give countless examples of using databases.

Types of databases

Here are some popular types of databases.

Distributed databases:

A distributed database is a type of database that has contributions from the shared database and information recorded by local computers. In this type of database system, the data is not located in one place and is distributed among different organizations.

Relational databases:

This database type defines database relationships in the form of tables. It is also called Relational DBMS, which is the most popular type of DBMS on the market. Example database of RDBMS system include MySQL, Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server database.

Object-oriented databases:

This type of computer database supports the storage of all types of data. Data is stored in the form of objects. The objects to be persisted in the database have attributes and methods that define what to do with the data. PostgreSQL is an example of an object-oriented relational DBMS.

Central database:

It is a centralized location and users from different backgrounds can access this data. This type of computer database stores application procedures that help users access data even from a remote location.

Open Source Databases:

This type of database stored information related to features. Mainly used in marketing, employee relations, customer service, databases.

Cloud databaser:

A cloud database is a database that is optimized or built for such a virtual environment. There are so many benefits to a cloud database, some of which can pay for storage capacity and bandwidth. It also offers on-demand scalability along with high availability.

Data warehouses:

Data warehouseis to facilitate a single version of the truth for a business for decision making and forecasting. A data warehouse is an information system that contains historical and interchangeable data from single or multiple sources. The data warehouse concept simplifies the organization's reporting and analysis process.

NoSQL databaser:

NoSQL database is used for large distributed datasets. There are some big data performance issues that are effectively addressed by relational databases. This type of computer database is very efficient for analyzing large unstructured data.

Graph databases:

A graph-oriented database uses graph theory to store, map, and query relationships. These types of computer databases are mainly used for the analysis of interconnections. For example, an organization can use a graph database to mine data about customers from social media.

OLTP databases:

OLTP another type of database that can perform fast query processing and maintain data integrity in multi-access environments.

Personal database:

A personal database is used to store data stored on personal computers that are smaller and easily manageable. The data is mainly used by the same department in the company and is accessible to a small group of people.

Multimodal database:

A multimodal database is a type of data processing platform that supports multiple data models that define how the specific knowledge and information in a database is organized and arranged.


In a document-oriented database, data is stored in collections of documents, typically using the XML, JSON, BSON formats. A record can store as much data as you want, regardless of the data type (or types) you prefer.


This type of DBMS uses the "parent-child" relationship for data storage. Its structure is like a tree with nodes representing records and branches representing fields. The Windows registry used in Windows XP is an example of a hierarchical database.

Network DBMS:

This type of DBMS supports many-to-many relationships. This usually results in complex database structures. The RDM server is an example of a database management system that implements the network model.

Database information

What is a database? Definition, concept, types with example (1)

There are five main components of a database:

Tools, accessories:

Hardware consists of physical, electronic devices such as computers, input/output devices, storage devices, etc. This provides the interface between computers and real-world systems.


This is a set of programs used to manage and control the overall database. This includes the database software itself, the operating system, the network software used to share data between users, and the application programs to access data in the database.


Data is raw and unorganized fact that must be processed to make sense. Data can be simple and unorganized at the same time unless it is organized. In general, data includes facts, observations, perceptions, numbers, signs, symbols, images, etc.


A process is a set of instructions and rules that help you use the DBMS. Design and run the database using evidence-based methods that allow you to guide the users who operate and manage it.

Database Access Language:

A database access language is used to access data to and from the database, insert new data, update existing data, or retrieve required data from the DBMS. The user writes some specific commands in a database access language and sends them to the database.

What is a Database Management System (DBMS)?

Database Management System (DBMS)is a collection of programs that allow its users to access databases, manipulate data, report and represent data. It also helps control database access.Database management systemsit is not a new concept and was therefore only implemented in the 1960s.

Charles Bachman's Integrated Data Store (IDS) is said to be the first DBMS in history. With the time database, the technologies developed a lot and the use and expected functions of the databases increased tremendously.

The History of Database Management Systems

Here are the important milestones from the story:

  • 1960 - Charles Bachman designed the first DBMS system.
  • 1970 - Codd introducerer IBM's Information Management System (IMS).
  • 1976 - Peter Chen invented and defined the entity relationship model also known as the ER model.
  • 1980 –Relational modelit becomes a widely accepted database element.
  • 1985 – Object-oriented DBMS is developed.
  • 1990 – Incorporation of object orientation into relational DBMS.
  • 1991 – Microsoft ships MS Access, a personal DBMS that replaces all other personal DBMS products.
  • 1995 – First Internet database applications.
  • 1997 – XML is used for database processing. Many vendors are beginning to incorporate XML into DBMS products.

Advantages of DBMS

  • DBMS offer a variety of data storage and retrieval techniques.
  • The DBMS acts as an efficient operator to balance the needs of multiple applications using the same data.
  • Uniform data handling processes.
  • Application developers were never exposed to details of data representation and storage.
  • A DBMS uses several powerful functions to efficiently store and retrieve data.
  • It offers data integrity and security.
  • The DBMS implements integrity constraints to achieve a high level of protection against prohibited data access.
  • A DBMS plans concurrent data access in such a way that only one user can access the same data at a time.
  • Reduced application development time.

Disadvantage of DBMS

DBMS can offer many advantages but it has some disadvantages-

  • The cost of hardware and software in a DBMS is quite high, which increases the budget of your organization.
  • Most database management systems are often complex systems, so users are required to be trained to use the DBMS.
  • In some organizations, all data is integrated into a single database, which can be destroyed due to electrical failure or the database is damaged on the storage media.
  • Using the same program at a time by several users sometimes leads to the loss of some data.
  • DBMS cannot perform sophisticated calculations.


  • Definition of database or database Meaning: A database is a systematic collection of data. They support electronic data storage and manipulation. Databases facilitate data management.
  • DBMS stands for Database Management System
  • We have four main types of DBMS namely Hierarchical, Network, Relational, Object Oriented
  • The most widely used DBMS is the relational model, which stores data in tabular formats. It uses SQL as a standard query language

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